«…quando Kant marcar que o pensamento está ameaçado, não tanto pelo erro, mas por ilusões inevitáveis que vêm de dentro da razão, como de uma zona ártica interior, onde a agulha de qualquer bússola enlouquece, é uma reorientação de todo o pensamento que se torna necessária, ao mesmo tempo que nele se insinua um certo delírio de direito»
– Deleuze & Guattari, “O que é a Filosofia?”.
«…I will write in a simple style about things entirely unknown to the ordinary individual. Nevertheless I will speak only of the manifest properties of the lodestone, because this tract will form part of a work on the construction of philosophical instruments. The disclosing of the hidden properties of this stone is like the art of the sculptor by which he brings figures and seals into existence».
– Petrus Peregrinus, “Epistola de Magnete”, 1269.
FUELESS GENERATORS OF COSMIC ENERGY
The earliest designs of a perpetual motion machine dates back to 1150, by an Indian mathematician-astronomer, Bhaskara II. He described a wheel that he claimed would run forever.
A French scholar, Petrus Peregrinus, created one of the earliest magnetic perpetual motion machines in 1269 A.D.
Perpetual motion is when a device or mechanism continually moves without stopping and without any third party assistance. The magnets cause this never ending motion with the natural charge they hold.
There are two types of perpetuum mobile:
- Perpetua mobilia of the first kind are those devices that violate the first law of thermodynamics, the principle of conservation of energy, creating energy out of nothing. Most attempts fall into this category.
- Perpetua mobilia of the second kind are devices that violate the second law of thermodynamics. Even though they obey the principle of conservation of energy, they attempt extraction of work from a single heat reservoir, violating the principle of no entropy decrease in an isolated macroscopic thermodynamic system.
Many say that devices which violate the first and second laws of thermodynamics won’t work. They’re lying and inventors like Nikola Tesla have proven it.
After returning from Colorado Springs where he had carried out an intensive series of experiments from June 1899 until January of 1900, Nikola Tesla wrote what he considered his most important article, entitled “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy Through the Use of the Sun” and published by his friend Robert Johnson in The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine of June 1900, in which he describes a self-activating machine that would draw power from the ambient medium, a fuelless generator.
The exact title of the chapter where he discusses this device is worth giving in its entirety:
«A DEPARTURE FROM KNOWN METHODS – POSSIBILITY OF A “SELF ACTING” ENGINE OR MACHINE, INANIMATE, YET CAPABLE, LIKE A LIVING BEING, OF DERIVING ENERGY FROM THE MEDIUM – THE IDEAL WAY OF OBTAINING MOTIVE POWER
Tesla stated he first started thinking about the idea when he read a statement by Lord Kelvin who said it was impossible to build a mechanism capable of abstracting heat from the surrounding medium and to operate by that heat. As a thought experiment Tesla envisioned a very long bundle of metal rods, extending from the earth to outer space. The earth is warmer than outer space so heat would be conducted up the bars along with an electric current. Then, all that would be needed is a very long power cord to connect the two ends of the metal bars to a motor. The motor would continue running until the earth was cooled to the temperature of outer space. “This would be an inanimate engine which, to all evidence, would be cooling a portion of the medium below the temperature of the surrounding, and operating by the heat abstracted”, that is, it would produce energy directly from the environment without “the consumption of any material”.»
He wrote that he first started thinking about deriving energy directly from the environment when he was in Paris during 1883, but that he was unable to do much with the idea for several years due to the commercial introduction of his alternating current generators and motors. It was not «until 1889 when I again took up the idea of the self-acting machine».
Tesla stated later to the press:
«This new power for the driving of the world’s machinery will be derived from the energy which operates the universe, the cosmic energy, whose central source for the earth is the sun and which is everywhere present in unlimited quantities» – “Device to Harness Cosmic Energy Claimed by Tesla”, New York American, November 1st, 1933.
Tesla’s intent was to condense the energy trapped between the earth and its upper atmosphere and to turn it into an electric current. He pictured the sun as an immense ball of electricity, positively charged with a potential of some 200 billion volts. The earth, on the other hand, is charged with negative electricity. The tremendous electrical force between these two bodies constituted, at least in part, what he called cosmic energy. It varied from night to day and from season to season but it is always present.
The positive particles are stopped at the ionosphere and between it and the negative charges in the ground, a distance of 60 miles, there is a large difference of voltage – something on the order of 360,000 volts. With the gases of the atmosphere acting as an insulator between these two opposite stores of electrical charges, the region between the ground and the edge of space traps a great deal of energy. Despite the large size of the planet, it is electrically like a capacitor which keeps positive and negative charges apart by using a non-conducting material as an insulator.
ELIMINATE REACTION THROUGH RHYTHM
How a generator, even in theory, could be capable of producing a self-sustaining current? This has been clearly explained by Walter M. Elsasser in a Scientific American article (May 1958) titled “The Earth as a Dynamo”. How currents could be built up and perpetuated to maintain the earth’s magnetic field? Elsasser propose three options in the dynamo model that would explain the earth’s persistent magnetism.
«If we had a material that could conduct electricity a thousand times better than copper, the system would indeed yield a self-sustaining current. We could also make it work by spinning the disk very fast… a third way we could make such a dynamo self-sustaining … is to increase the size of the system: theory says that the bigger we make such a dynamo, the better it will function. If we could build a coil-and-disk apparatus of this kind of scale of many miles, we would have no difficulty in making the currents self-sustaining».
Tesla did not have a material a thousand times more conductive than copper, neither was he able to spin a disk at the ultra-high speeds needed to produce such a current, nor did he plan on using a piece of rotating metal several miles in diameter.
What he did was to use energy that is usually wasted in a generator and turn it into a source of power.
Tesla’ did some modifications on the Faraday’s dynamo design:
He did so in order to eliminate one of the biggest problems in any physical system: the reaction to every action. It is the reaction that works to cancel out whatever effort goes into causing the original action. Instead of the opposite reaction slowing down the system that created it, the reaction adds energy to the system.
Tesla already had described the relation between a motor and a stator as being similar to the production of rhythm (point and counterpoint corresponding to movement and inertia):
«The existence of movement unavoidably implies a body which is being moved and a force which is moving it. Hence, wherever there is life, there is a mass moved by a force. All mass possesses inertia, all force tends to persist. Owing to this universal property and condition, a body, be it at rest or in motion, tends to remain in the same state, and a force, manifesting itself anywhere and through whatever cause, produces an equivalent opposing force, and as an absolute necessity of this it follows that every movement in nature must be rhythmical» – “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy Through the Use of the Sun“, The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, June 1900.
As Edward S. Casey and Peter Z. Grossman, authors of “Introduction To Energy”, pointed out, the principles of a free magnetic generator are: «As the magnetic poles turn on the rotor past the coils embedded in the stator, the A.C. voltage in each coil alternates in polarity, positive and negative» (page 50).
So, Tesla created an unipolar dynamo, working simultaneously as a motor and as a magnetic generator (dynamo or electromagnetic inductor), then, self-sustaining, that is, capable of generating a current after being disconnected from an outside source of movement like falling water or steam. Rotation is started by, say, a motor powered by line current. Both a generator and a motor disk are mounted in the magnetic enclosure. As the disks gain speed, current is produced which, in turn, reinforces the magnets, which cause more current to be generated. That current is, likely, first directed to the motor disk which increases the speed of the system. At a certain point, the speed of the two disks is great enough that the magnetic field created by the current has the strength to keep the dynamo-motor going by itself.
For further details about how Tesla improved Faraday’s dynamo, please read this article.
What process keep the unipolar dynamo operating after the powered start-up? Two features of device’s geometry are significant.
First, when a resistive load, like a light bulb is added to the circuit, it lowers the voltage at the center of the disk. This lower voltage at the center means that there is a greater difference in voltage between the center and the outside edge of the disk than there was before the light bulb was added. As the difference between the center and the outside increases, the dynamo works harder and makes more current.
Second, yet more important, the dynamo takes either very little, or no energy to keep going because the current coming off the generator is doing double duty. The current makes the bulb glow, but on its way from the generator to the filament in the bulb, it travels a path that adds to the momentum of the dynamo and, therefore, consumes energy at a very low rate. The process continues , it would seem, until heat losses in the filament equal the rotational energy of the generator’s flywheel.
Tesla unipolar dynamo comes to be a better electrical conductor, not that a new material is used, but a new geometry is applied so that the current does not create its own opposing forces. It appears to be an ingenious feature of engineering that takes one of the basic principles of nature, an equal and opposite action for every action, and turns it, by the use of a novel circuit geometry, into a reaction that is additive to the original action.
Tesla, however, was not satisfied with his mechanical self-sustaining generator. The dynamo would provide the energy to run a single machine, but his vision was to light cities and in the 1900 Century magazine article he elaborated on the theory of such a machine.
Imagine, he suggested, an enclosed cylinder or tube (T in the figure below) with a small hole (O) in it near the bottom. Let us say that this cylinder, he added, contains very little energy (A) but that it is placed in an environment that has a lot of energy (B). In this case, energy would flow from the outside environment, the high energy source, through the small opening at the bottom of the cylinder, and into the cylinder where there is less energy. Also suppose that as the energy passing into the cylinder is converted into another form of energy as, for example, heat is converted into mechanical energy in a steam engine. If it were possible to artificially produce such a “sink” for the energy of the ambient medium then “we should be enabled to get at any point of the globe a continuous supply of energy, day and night”.
On the surface of the earth we are at a high energy level and can imagine ourselves at the bottom of a lake with the water surrounding us equal to the energy in the surrounding medium. If a “sink” for the energy is to be created in the cylinder, it is necessary to replace the water that would flow into the tank with something much lighter than water. This could be done by pumping the water out of the cylinder, but when the water flowed back in, we would only be able to perform the same amount of work with the inflowing water as we did when it was first pumped out. “Consequently nothing would be gained in this double operation of first raising the water and then letting it fall down”. Energy, though, can be converted into different forms as it passes from a higher to a lower state.
He said, “assume that the water, in its passage into the tank, is converted into something else, which may be taken out of it without using any, or by using very little power”. For example, if the energy of the ambient medium is taken to be the water, oxygen and hydrogen making up the water are the other forms of energy into which it could change as it entered the cylinder. Corresponding to this ideal case, all the water flowing into the tank would be decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen… and the result would be that the water would continually flow in, and yet the tank would remain entirely empty, the gases formed escaping. We would thus produce, by expending initially a certain amount of work to create a sink for…the water to flow in, a condition enabling us to get any amount of energy without further effort.
ECONOMICAL OPPOSED REACTION
With his prominent position in the world of science at the time, it is curious why Tesla’s invention was not commercialized or at least publicized more. Economics, not science, appear to have been the main factor. The adoption of alternating current was opposed by powerful financiers of the period.
When Tesla tried to create a light bulb that would last forever or an wireless energy source that we could use for free without connecting to regular power supplies, he was put out of commission.
Michael Pupin, another leading electrical researcher at the turn of the century, noted in his autobiography:
«…captains of industry…were afraid that they would have to scrap some of their direct current apparatus and the plants for manufacturing it, if the alternating current system received any support … ignorance and false notions prevailed in the early nineties, because the captains of industry paid small attention to highly trained scientists». – Michael Pupin, From Immigrant to Inventor, Charles Scribner’s Sons, N.Y., pp. 285-286, 1930.
Tesla’s patents for electrical generators and motors were granted in the late 1880’s. During the 1890’s the large electric power industry, in the form of Westinghouse and General Electric, came into being. With tens of millions of dollars invested in plants and equipment, the industry was not about to abandon a very profitable ten year old technology for yet another new one.
Tesla saw that profits could be made from the self-acting generator, but somewhere along the line he had pointed out to him the negative impact the device would have. At the end of the section in Century where he described his new generator he wrote:
«I worked for a long time fully convinced that the practical realization of the method of obtaining energy from the sun would be of incalculable industrial value, but the continued study of the subject revealed the fact that while it will be commercially profitable if my expectations are well founded, it will not be so to an extraordinary degree» .
Years later, in the Philadelphia Public Ledger of November 2nd of 1933, is an interview with Tesla talking about his fuelless generator, under the headline “Tesla ‘Harnesses’ Cosmic Energy”. In it, he was “Asked whether the sudden introduction of his principle would upset the present economic system, Dr. Tesla replied, ‘It is badly upset already.’ He added that now as never before was the time ripe for the development of new resources”.
Two days after Tesla’s death, representatives of the United States’ Alien Property Custodian Office went to his room at the New Yorker Hotel and seized his possessions. After the FBI was contacted by the War Department, his papers were declared to be top secret. The personal effects were sequestered on the advice of presidential advisers; J. Edgar Hoover declared the case most secret, because of the nature of Tesla’s inventions and patents. One document stated that “[he] is reported to have some 80 trunks in different places containing transcripts and plans having to do with his experiments […]”. Tesla’s family and the Yugoslav embassy struggled with the American authorities to gain these items after his death due to the potential significance of some of his research. Eventually, his nephew, Mr. Sava Kosanović won possession of some of the materials, which are now housed in the Nikola Tesla Museum.
It has been nearly a century since Nikola Tesla claimed a radically new method for producing electricity.
Why has this simple energy technology is not being developed? Because big energy companies would lose lots of money if we start using free energy.
But, as the need for the development of new resources is greater now than at the end of the last century, perhaps these overlooked inventions will make Tesla’s vision of «increasing human energy through the use of the sun’s energy» become a reality.
BE YOURSELF THE INVENTOR
To create a magnetic generator device, just follow the instructions:
Set a wheel, that will be the inner wheel, on a titling axis. The wheel itself should be of something that is non-conductive and can spin.
Attach magnets of some kind (ceramic bar magnets work well) equally around the rim of this wheel. Make sure that each of the magnets faces out for the same polarity.
Place a fixed outer ring around the inner ring. Make sure that this ring is also made of something non-conductive as you build a perpetual magnet generator.
Line the outer, fixed ring of the perpetual magnetic generator, with magnets that face in.
Make the inner ring of the perpetual magnetic generator you have built spin. As the inner wheel reaches the utmost portion of its revolution, the magnets on the outer ring should make the ring continue spinning until the next magnets set of opposing magnets face each other again.
Allow the inner ring of the perpetual magnet generator spin until the speed increases and energy is generated.