João César Monteiro
Interview with Jüng (reference to the “Mithras Liturgy”), BBC, 22/10/1959
«The “Mithras Liturgy” received its name in 1903 from A. Dieterich’s book Eine MithrasLiturgie, in which he proposed that the text in question contains an official liturgy of the Mithras cult, a Mithraic ritual for the ascent and immortalization of the soul.
The “Mithras Liturgy” is part of the great magical codex of Paris (Papyrus 574 of the Bibliotheque Nationale). Presumably compiled in the early 4th century C.E., this codex contains a variety of tractates, hymns, recipes, and prescriptions, which were apparently collected for use in the working library of an Egyptian magician. Lines 475- 834 of this codex constitute the Mithras Liturgy; these boundaries for the Liturgy are suggested by the continuity of thought within the Liturgy, by the punctuation utilized by the scribe, and by the apparent transition to a different section (lines 835-849: astrological calculations). Interestingly, lines 467-474 parallel lines 821-823 and 830-834: thus the Mithras Liturgy is placed between two closely related versions of spells utilizing lines from Homer.» – Source
The “Mithras Liturgy”
«(475) Be gracious to me, 0 Providence and Psyche, as I write these mysteries handed down for gain but for instruction; and for an only child I request immortality, O initiates of this our power (furthermore, it is necessary for you, O daughter, to take (480) the juices of herbs and spices, which will to you at the end of my holy treatise), which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be revealed to me by his archangel, so that I alone may ascend into heaven as an inquirer (485) and behold the universe.
This is the invocation of the ceremony:1
“First -origin of my origin, AEEIOYO, first beginning of my beginning,2 PPP SSS PHR spirit3 of spirit, the first of the spirit (490) in me, MMM, fire given by god to my mixture of the mixtures in me, the first of the fire in me, EY EIA EE, water of water, the first of the water in me, OOO AAA EEE, earthy substance, the first of the earthy substance in me, (495) YE YOE, my complete body (I,_______whose mother is _______4), which was formed by a noble arm and an incorruptible right hand in a world without light and yet radiant, without soul and yet alive with soul, YEI AYI EYOIE: now if it be your will, METERTA (500) PHOTH (METHARTHA PHERIE, in another place)5 YEREZATH, give me over to immortal birth and, following that, to my underlying nature, so that,6 after the present need which is pressing me exceedingly, I may gaze upon the immortal (505) beginning with the immortal spirit, ANCHREPHRENESOYPHIRIGCH, with the immortal water, ERONOYI PARAKOYNETH, with the most steadfast air, EIOAE PSENABOTH; that I may be born again in thought, KRAOCHRAX R OIM ENARCHOMAI,7 (510) and the sacred spirit may breathe in me, NECHTHEN APOTOY NECHTHIN ARPI ETH; so that I may wonder at the sacred fire, KYPHE; that I may gaze upon the unfathomable, awesome water of the dawn, NYO THESO ECHO OYCHIECHOA, and the vivifying (515),and encircling aether may hear me, ARNOMETHPH; for today I am about to behold, with immortal eyes — I, born mortal from mortal womb, but transformed by tremendous power and an incorruptible right hand (520)! — and with immortal spirit, the immortal Aion and and master of the fiery diadems–
I, sanctified through holy consecrations!– while there subsists within me, holy, for a short time, my human soul-might, which I will again (525) receive after the present bitter and relentless necessity which is pressing down upon me–
I, _______ whose mother is _______ according to the immutable decree of god, EYE YIA EEI AO EIAY IYA IEO! Since it is impossible for me, born (530) mortal, to rise with the golden brightnesses of the immortal brilliance, OEY AEO EYA EOE YAE 5IAE, stand, O perishable nature of mortals, and at once me safe and sound after the inexorable and pressing (535) need. For I am the son PSYCHO[N] DEMOY PROCHO PROA, I am MACHARPH[.]N MOY PROPSYCHON PROE!”
Draw in breath from the rays, drawing up three times as much as you can, and you will see yourself being lifted up and (540) ascending to the height, so that you seem to be in mid-air. You will hear nothing either of man or of any other living thing, nor in that hour will you see anything of mortal affairs on earth, but rather you will see all immortal things. For in that day (545) and hour you will see the divine order of the skies: the presiding gods8 rising into heaven, and others setting. Now the course of the visible gods will appear through the disk of god, my father; and in similar fashion the so-called “pipe” (550), the origin of the ministering wind. For you will see it hanging from the sun’s disk like a pipe. You will see the outflow of this object toward the regions westward, boundless as an east wind, if it be assigned to the regions of the East–and the other (viz. the west wind), similarly, toward its own (555) regions.9 And you will see the gods staring intently at you and rushing at you. So at once put your right finger on your mouth and say:
“Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol of the living, incorruptible god! (560) Guard me, Silence, NECHTHEIR THANMELOY!” Then make a long hissing sound, next make a popping sound, and say: “PROPROPHEGGE MORIOS PROPHYR PROPHEGGE NEMETHIRE ARPSENTEN PTTETMI MEOY ENARTH PHYRKECHO PSYRIDARIO (565) TYRE PHILBA.” Then you will see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at you, but rather going about in their own order of affairs. So when you see that the world above is clear (570) and circling, and that none of the gods or angels is threatening you, expect to hear a great crash of thunder, so as to shock you. Then say again: “Silence! Silence! (the prayer) I am a star, wandering about with you, and shining forth out of (575) the deep, OXY10 O XERTHEYTH.” Immediately after you have said these things the sun’s disk will be expanded. And after you have said the second prayer, where there is “Silence! Silence!” and the accompanying words, make a hissing sound twice and a popping sound twice, and immediately you will see (580) many five- pronged stars coming forth from the disk and filling all the air. Then say again: “Silence! Silence!”
And when the disk is open, you will see the fireless circle, and the fiery doors shut tight (585). At once close your eyes and recite the following prayer. The third prayer:
“Give ear to me, hearken to me, _______ whose mother is _______, O Lord, you who have bound together with your breath the fiery bars of the fourfold (590) root, O Fire-Walker, PENTITEROYNI, Light-Maker (others: Encloser), SEMESILAM, Fire-Breather, PSYRINPHEY, Fire-Feeler, IAO, Light-Breather, OAI,11 Fire-Delighter, ELOYRE, Beautiful Light, AZAI, Aion, ACHBA, (595) Light-Master, PEPPER PREPEMPIPI, Fire-Body, PHNOYENIOCH, Light-Giver, Fire-Sower, AREI EIKITA, Fire-Driver, GALLABALBA, Light-Forcer, AIO, Fire-Whirler, PYRICHIBOOSEIA, Light-Mover, SANCHEROB, Thunder-Shaker (600), IE OE IOEIO, Glory-Light, BEEGENETEE Light-Increaser, SOYSINEPHIEN, Fire-Light-Maintainer, SOYSINEPHI ARENBARAZEI MARMARENTEY, Star-Tamer: open for me, PROPROPHEGGE EMETHEIRE MORIOMOTYREPHILBA, because, (605) on account of the pressing and bitter and inexorable necessity, I invoke the immortal names, living and honored, which never pass into mortal nature and are not declared in articulate speech by human tongue or mortal speech (610) or mortal sound: EEO OEEO IOO OE EEO EEO OE EO IOO OEEE OEE OOE IE EO OO OE IEO OE OOE IEO OE IEEO EE IO OE IOE OEO EOE OEO OIE OIE EO OI III EOE OYE EOOEE EO EIA AEA EEA (615) EEEE EEE EEE IEO EEO OEEEOE EEO EYO OE EIO EO OE OE EE OOO YIOE.”
Say all these things with fire and spirit, until completing the first utterance; then, similarly, begin the second, until you complete the (620) seven immortal gods of the world. When you have said these things, you will hear thundering and shaking in the surrounding realm; and you will likewise feel yourself being agitated. Then say again: “Silence!” (the prayer) Then open your eyes and you will see the doors (625) open and the world of the gods which is within the doors, so that from the pleasure and joy of the sight your spirit runs ahead and ascends. So stand still and at once draw breath from the divine into yourself, while you look intently. Then when (630) your soul is restored, say: “Come, Lord, ARCHANDARA PHOTAZA PYRIPHOTA ZABYTHIX ETIMENMERO PHORATHEN ERIE PROTHRI PHORATHI.”
When you have said this, the rays will turn toward you; look at the center of them. For when (635) you have done this, you will see a youthful god, beautiful in appearance, with fiery hair, and in a white tunic and a scarlet cloak, and wearing a fiery crown. At once greet him with the fire-greeting:
“Hail, O Lord, Great Power, Great Might, (640) King, Greatest of gods, Helios, the Lord of heaven and earth, God of gods: mighty is your breath; mighty is your strength, O Lord. If it be your will, announce me to the supreme god, the one who has begotten and made you: that a man —
I, _______ whose mother is _______ (645) who was born from the mortal womb of _______ and from the fluid of semen, and who, since he has been born again from you today, has become immortal out of so many myriads in this hour according to the wish of god the exceedingly good– resolves to worship (650) you, and prays with all his human power (that you may take along with you the horoscope of the day and hour today, which has the name THRAPSIARI MORIROK, that he may appear and give revelation during the good hours, EORO RORE ORRI ORlOR ROR ROI (655) OR REORORI EOR EOR EOR EORE!).”
After you have said these things, he will come to the celestial pole, and you will see him walking as if on a road. Look intently and make a long bellowing sound, like a horn, releasing all your breath and straining your sides; and kiss (660) the amulets and say, first toward the right: “Protect me, PROSYMERI!” After saying this, you will see the doors thrown open, and seven virgins coming from deep within, dressed in linen garments, and with the faces of asps. They are called the Fates (665) of heaven, and wield golden wands. When you see them, greet them in this manner:
“Hail, O seven Fates of heaven, O noble and good virgins, O sacred ones and companions of MINIMIRROPHOR, O most holy guardians of the four pillars!12
(670) Hail to you, the first, CHREPSENTHAES!
Hail to you, the second, MENESCHEES!
Hail to you, the third, MECHRAN!
Hail to you, the fourth, ARARMACHES!
Hail to you, the fifth, ECHOMMIE!
Hail to you, the sixth, TICHNONDAES!
Hail to you, the seventh, EROY ROMBRIES!
There also come forth another seven gods, who have the faces of black bulls, in linen (675) loin-cloths, and in possession of seven golden diadems. They are the so-called Pole-Lords of heaven, whom you must greet in the same manner, each of them with his own name: “Hail, O guardians of the pivot, O sacred and brave youths, who turn (680) at one command the revolving axis of the vault of heaven, who send out thunder and lightning and jolts of earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations of impious people, but to me, who am pious and god-fearing, you send health and soundness of body (685), and acuteness of hearing and seeing, and calmness in the present good hours of this day, O my Lords and powerfully ruling Gods!
Hail to you, the first, AIERONTHI!
Hail to you, the second, MERCHEIMEROS!
Hail to you, the third, ACHRICHIOYR!
(690) Hail to you, the fourth, MESARGILTO!
Hail to you, the fifth, CHICHROALITHO!
Hail to you, the sixth, ERMICHTHATHOPS!
Hail to you, the seventh, EORASICHE!”
Now when they take their place, here and there, in order, look in the air and you will see lightning-bolts going down, and lights flashing (695), and the earth shaking, and a god descending, a god immensely great, having a bright appearance youthful, golden-haired, with a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers,13 and holding in his right hand a golden (700) shoulder of a young bull: this is the Bear14 which moves and turns heaven around, moving upward and downward in accordance with the hour. Then you will see lightning-bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body. And at once (705) produce a long bellowing sound, straining your belly, that you may excite the five senses: bellow long until the conclusion, and again kiss the amulets, and say: “MOKRIMO PHERIMOPHERERI, life of me, _______” stay!
Dwell in (710) my soul! Do not abandon me, for one entreats you, ENTHO PHENEN THROPIOTH.”
And gaze upon the god while bellowing long; and greet him in this manner:
“Hail, O Lord, O Master of the water!
Hail, O Founder of the earth!
Hail, O Ruler of the wind!
O Bright Lightener (715) , PROPROPHEGGE EMETHIRI ARTENTEPI THETH MIMEO YENARO PHYRCHECHO PSERI DARIO PHRE PHRELBA!
Give revelation 0 Lord, concerning the matter of _______.
O Lord, while being born again, I am passing away; while growing and having grown, (720) I am dying; while being born from a life-generating birth, I am passing on, released to death– as you have founded, as you have decreed, and have established the mystery.15
I am PHEROYRA MIOYRI.”
After you have said these things, he will immediately respond with a revelation (725). Now you will grow weak in soul and will not be in yourself, when he answers you. He speaks the oracle to you in verse, and after speaking he will depart. But you remain silent, since you will be able to comprehend all these matters by yourself; for at a later time (730) you will remember infallibly the things spoken by the great god, even if the oracle contained myriads of verses. If you also wish to use a fellow-initiate, so that he alone may hear with you the things spoken, let him remain pure together With you for (735) days, and abstain from meat and the bath. And even if you are alone, and you undertake the things communicated by the god, you speak as though prophesying in ecstasy. And if you also wish to show him, then judge whether he is completely worthy as a man (740): treat him just as if in his place you were being judged in the matter of immortalization, and whisper to him the first prayer, of which the beginning is “First origin of my origin, AEEIOYO.” And say the successive things as an initiate, over his (745) head, in a soft voice, so that he may not hear, as you are anointing his face with the mystery. This immortalization takes place three times a year. And if anyone, O child, after the teaching, wishes to disobey, then for him it will no longer (750) be in effect. Instruction for the ritual:
Take a sun-scarab which has twelve rays,16 and make it fall into a deep, turquoise cup, at the time when the moon is invisible;17 put in together with it the seed of the lotometra, (755) and honey; and, after grinding it, prepare a cake. And at once you will see it (viz. the scarab) moving forward and eating; and when it has consumed it, it immediately dies. Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel of excellent rose oil, as much as you wish; and (760) spreading sacred sand in a pure manner, set the vessel on it, and say the formula over the vessel for seven days, while the sun is in mid-heaven:
“I have consecrated you, that your essence may be useful to me, to _______ alone, IE IA E EE OY EIA, that you may prove useful to me (765) alone. For I am PHOR PHORA PHOS PHOTIZAAS (others: PHOR PHOR OPHOTHEI XAAS).”
On the seventh day pick up the scarab, and bury it with Myrrh and wine from Mendes and fine linen; and put it away in a flourishing bean-field. (770) Then, after you have entertained and feasted together, put away, in a pure manner, the ointment for the immortalization. If you want to show this to someone else, take the juice of the herb called “kentritis,” and smear it, along with rose oil, over the eyes of the one you wish; (775) and he will see so clearly that he will amaze you. I have not found a greater spell than this in the world. Ask the god for what you want, and he will give to you.18
Now presentation19 before the great god is like this: obtaining the above-mentioned herb (780) kentritis, at the conjunction (viz. of the sun and the moon)20 occurring in the Lion, take the juice and, after mixing it with honey and myrrh, write on a leaf of the persea tree the eight-letter formula, as is mentioned below. And keeping yourself pure for three days before, set out early in the morning toward the East, (785) lick off the leaf while you show it to the Sun, and then he (viz. the sun god) will listen to you attentively. Begin to consecrate this at the divine new moon,21 in the Lion. Now this is the formula:
“I EE 00 IAI.”
Lick this up, so that you may be protected; and rolling up the leaf (790) , throw it into the rose oil. Many times have I used the spell, and have wondered greatly. But the god said to me: “Use the ointment no longer, but, after casting it into the river, consult while wearing the great mystery (795) of the scarab revitalized through the twenty-five living birds,22 and consult once a month, at full moon, instead of three times a year.” The kentritis plant grows from the month of Payni, in the regions of the (800) black earth, and is similar to the erect verbena. This is how to recognize it: an ibis wing is dipped at its black tip and smeared with the juice, and the feathers fall off when touched. After the Lord (805) pointed this out, it was found in Menelaitis in Phalagry, at the river banks, near the Besas plant.
it is of a single stem, and reddish down to the root; and the leaves are rather crinkled and have fruit (810) like the tip of wild asparagus. It is similar to the so-called talapes, like the wild beet. Now the amulets require this procedure: copy the right one onto the skin (815) of a black sheep, with myrrh-ink, and after tying it with sinews of the same ani- mal, put it on; and copy the left one onto the skin of a white sheep, and use the same procedure. The left one is very full of “PROSTHYMERI” (820), and has this text: “So speaking, he drove through the trench the single-hoofed horses.” (Il. X. 564) “And men gasping among grievous slaughters.” (Il. X. 521) “And they washed off their profuse sweat in the sea.” (Il. X. 572) “You will dare to lift up your mighty spear against Zeus.” (IL. VIII.424) (825) Zeus went up the mountain with a golden bullock and a silver dagger. Upon all he bestowed a share, only to Amara did he not give, but he said: “Let go of what you have, and then you will receive, PSINOTHER NOPSITHER THERNOPSI” (and so on, as you like). (830) “So Ares suffered, when Otos and mighty Epialtes23 … him. (Il. V. 385) spell for restraining anger: “You will dare to lift up your mighty spear against Zeus.” (Il. VIII.424) For friends: “Let … seize … , lest we become a source of joy for our enemies.” (Il. X. 193)
1. Or “spell”; note also, below, the translation of logos [lambda omicron gamma omicron sigma — RE] with “prayer.”
2. Cf. On the Eighth and Ninth (Nag Hammadi Codex VI, tractate 6), page 60, line 20. With regard to the Mithras Liturgy in general, cf. this tractate as well as another Hermetic tractate, Corpus Hermeticum XIII.
3. “Spirit,” “breath,” “wind”: pneuma [pi nu eta upsilon mu alpha — RE] as one of the four elements.
4. Here the initiate was supposed to introduce his own name and that of his mother. This formula appears several times in the Liturgy.
5. one of the several variant readings suggested by a scribe.
6. Preisendanz takes the ina-clauses [iota nu alpha — RE] as independent clauses.
7. Apparently used here as part of the magical utterance, enarchomai [eta nu alpha rho chi omicron mu alpha iota — RE] is Greek for “I begin.”
8. Moving, revolving heavenly bodies, which may influence human affairs and preside over the days.
9. or, with slightly different punctuation: “For you will see it hanging like a pipe from the sun’s disk, toward the regions westward, boundless as an east wind, if it be assigned to the regions of the East; but if the . other (viz. the west wind) be assigned, similarly to its own (555) regions, you will see the reverse of the sight.”
10. Perhaps OXY [omicron xi upsilon — RE], “brightly.”
11. A permutation of the divine name IAO. cf. also AIO (below, line 598).
12. The reference to the four pillars supporting heaven seems Egyptian. On the seven Fates of heaven, cf. [line of text missing in copy — RE]
13. Eastern [particularly, Persian — RE] attire.
14. The constellation called the Great Bear was known in Egypt as the Bull, or the Bull’s Foreleg. Cf. also, with Dieterich, the place of the bull in Mithraism.
15. According to Dieterich, here ends the Mithras Liturgy per se.
16. The scarab, the Egyptian god Kheper, represented the rising sun.
17. Literally “at the seizure of the moon.” This interesting phrase probably designates the new moon.
18. For examples of Jewish and Christian parallels to this familiar statement, cf. Matthew 7:7, and H. Strack and P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch (Muenchen: Beck, 1926), vol. 1, 450ff.
19. Presentation or introduction to the great god for the sake of attaining friendship and communion with the god.
20. That is, at the new moon.
21. The new moon according to the heavens, made by god, in distinction from the new moon according to the calendar, made by man.
22. This allusion to the birds is somewhat obscure.
23. [Sic; but this giant’s name is usually given as Ephialtes. He and his brother Otos imprisoned Ares in a bronze jar. — RE]»
Sauve qui peut (la vie), Jean-Luc Godard, 1980
0: RUN FOR YOUR LIFE
«- What’s that music I hear?
– What music?
– I don’t know what music you mean.»
1: THE IMAGINARY
«Quelque chose dans le corps et dans la tête s’arqueboute contre le néant. La vie: un geste plus rapide, un bras qui retombe à contre temps. Un pas plus lent. Une bouffée d’irrégularité. Un faux mouvement. Tout ce par quoi, dans ce dérisoire carré de résistance contre l’éternité vide qu’est le poste de travail, il y a encore des événements, même minuscules. Il y a encore un temps, même monstruosité étiré. Cette maladresse, ce déplacement superflu, cette accélération soudaine, cette main qui s’y prend à deux fois, cette grimace, ce décrochage, c’est la vie qui s’accroche. Tout ce qui en chacun des hommes de la chaîne crie silencieusement: “je ne suis pas une machine”».
2: THE FEAR
«I think it’s unfair that a mother can touch her children, boy or girl more easily than the father.»
«”During the last 200 years, blackbirds left the forests and became city birds. First in England in the 18th century. Then in Paris and in the Ruhr. During the 19th century, they invaded all the cities in Europe. They settled in Vienna and Prague around 1900. Then they went east, taking over Budapest, Belgrade and Istanbul. (…) For the planet Earth, the blackbird’s invasion of man’s world is far more significant than the conquest of South America or the return of the Jews to Palestine. The modification of relations between species, fish, birds, men, plants is a modification of a higher order than the changes in relations between groups of the same species. Bohemia may have been occupied by the Celts and the Slavs and Bessarabia conquered by the Russians or the Rumanians. The earth couldn’t care less. But a blackbird betraying nature to follow man in his artificial universe… that’s what changes the organization of the planet.»
«Everyone’s scared of thinking. No, everyone’s scared of interpreting.»
«”I make films to keep myself busy. If I had the strength, I’d do nothing. It’s because I can’t bear doing nothing that I make films. For no other reason. That’s the most honest thing I can say about my work”»
«- I learned to feed animals today. There was a calf with a hole in its back. Whatever he ate, poured out of it.
– With me, it’s people…
– What do you mean?
– They have a hole in the mouth and the words just pour out.»
3: THE TRADE
«- Who are your heroes. Louis?
– Let’s see… Al Capone. Guevara. Malcolm X. Gandhi. Robinson…
– Keep going!
– Mamma Barker. Castro. Van Gogh. Sartre. Bob Dylan.
– You see he identifies with all the losers. He’s been conned by all that spiritual bullshit. (…) It’s all tricks. There are no heroes! There are no winners. It’s all bullshit. No saints. No geniuses. Only dirty tricks and fairy-tales make the game go…»
«The picture’s all right, now let’s do the sound. When I touch your tits with my shoe… You say “Aye!”, then suck him. Go! You, Thierry… when she sucks you say “Uh!”, then lick her arse. Let’s go! And you… when he licks your arse, you say “Eh!” like when you’re goosed on the Mètro. Go to it, Thierry. Then you put some lipstick on me… just once, and if I smile, then you kiss me. Let’s go!»
4: THE MUSIC
«”Don’t forget that a carrot trembles before the knife, that lettuce screams when it’s torn and cabbage weeps when boiled” – Angelo Napoli, 15th October, 1979»
«”Crystal and smoke, the two faces of death”»
«Rather stupidly, I started thinking. I’m not dying. My life hasn’t flashed before my eyes. I’m not dying… since I don’t feel a thing.»
«Godard c’est un aristotélicien, vous savez pourquoi ? A ma connaissance, jamais il n’a construit un film (…) soit explicitement soit implicitement, le diviser d’après ce qu’il faut appeler des catégories. (…) Simplement son astuce et ce qui fait notre joie, c’est qu’il invente des tables de catégories tout à fait, tout à fait bizarres. Mais c’est des tables… Godard, il n’a pas, pardonnez-moi cette formule un peu facile mais je crois qu’elle est vraie fondamentalement, Godard, il n’a pas une table de montage, il a une table des catégories. Et sa table de montage, c’est sa table des catégories. Je prends un film où ça éclate, “Sauve qui peut la vie”. Vous avez quatre catégories, quatre grandes catégories. Alors, on se dit, oh ben non ! faire de ça des catégories, il faut le faire ! Chez Aristote les catégories c’étaient la substance, la qualité, la quantité… Chez Godard les quatre grandes catégories de Sauve qui peut la vie, c’est l’imaginaire, la peur, le commerce, la musique. Mais elles jouent le rôle explicite de catégories, à savoir, chez Godard, là j’en dis trop, mais c’est juste pour prendre un exemple, chez Godard, pour fonder un exemple où je voudrais que vous pressentiez la nécessité de confronter le cinéma non pas seulement avec les autres arts, mais avec la pensée et la philosophie. Chez Godard, les catégories, à la lettre, peuvent recevoir une définition très stricte, à savoir : ce sont des genres réflexifs dans lesquels se réfléchissent une série d’images. C’est un cinéma sériel, mais les séries d’images se réfléchissent dans un genre réflexif, le genre réflexif étant une catégorie. D’où pour chaque film, là où il est très ingénieux, très créateur, c’est que pour chaque film, il va refaire une nouvelle table des catégories correspondant au film. Et chaque fois les images se réfléchiront dans des catégories qui peuvent prendre des figures les plus diverses. En ce sens je peux dire à la lettre.. (…)
Oui, dans chaque film, il va refaire sa table des catégories. Vous en voulez en voilà. Evidemment à charge pour lui qu’elles soient fondées par les séries d’images. Mais les séries d’images vont toujours se réfléchir dans une catégorie, c’est comme ça qu’il brise la narration. Une de ses manières de briser la narration, c’est précisément de faire dépendre les séries d’images d’une catégorie réflexive, c’est à dire d’un concept réflexif. Par là, c’est vraiment du…, c’est vraiment un rapport cinéma /philosophie.»
– Deleuze, Cours sur Cinéma, 30/10/1984
Gishiki [A Cerimónia], Nagisa Oshima, 1971
«- Acorde, você não é mais criança.
– Eles os enterraram.
– O que eles enterraram? Um tesouro? Quem eles enterraram?
– Meu irmão mais novo.
– Enterraram um bebê que ainda estava respirando.
– Cobriram-lhe com terra, mas tive a impressão de que ainda estava chorando… e então coloquei meu ouvido no chão. Mamãe teve que me puxar com toda sua força. Então tivemos que correr como loucos para voltar à coluna que estava marchando. (…)
– É pesado, doloroso, a terra caindo sobre…
– A terra?
– Estou enterrado. Sepultado. Pouco a pouco o ar…
– Masuo, sinto muito por você.
– É doloroso, estou sufocado. Mas me sinto bem. Não… estou começando a afundar. Meus olhos se fecham. É a terra, é o cheiro da terra. Meus ouvidos se fecham. Minha boca está cheia de terra. Todos os poros de meu corpo estão tapados. A terra não pode ser mais separada de meu corpo… Na superfície, alguém ouve minha voz… meu grande irmão… não, eu.»
«O tirano institucionaliza a besteira, mas é o primeiro a servir seu sistema, e o primeiro instituído é sempre um escravo que comanda escravos.»
«O Asno de Zaratustra diz sim; mas, para ele, afirmar é carregar, assumir, encarregar-se. Ele carrega tudo: os fardos de que é encarregado (os valores divinos), aqueles de que ele próprio se encarrega (os valores humanos) e o peso de seus músculos fatigados, quando nada mais tem para carregar (a ausência dos valores)29. Há um gosto terrível pela responsabilidade nesse asno ou nesse boi dialético e um ranço moral, como se só fosse possível afirmar à força de expiar, como se fosse preciso passar pelas infelicidades da cisão e do dilaceramento para chegar a dizer sim; como se a Diferença fosse o mal e como se ela já fosse o negativo que só poderia produzir a afirmação expiando, isto é, encarregando-se, ao mesmo tempo, do peso do negado e da própria negação. (…) Aqueles que Nietzsche chama de senhores são seguramente homens de potência, mas não homens de poder, pois o poder se julga pela atribuição dos valores em curso; ao escravo, não basta tomar o poder para deixar de ser escravo; é mesmo a lei do curso ou da superfície do mundo ser conduzido por escravos.»
«(29) NIETZSCHE não pára de denunciar a assimilação de “afirmar” com “carregar” (cf. Para além de bem e mal. § 213: “Pensar e levar uma coisa a sério, assumir-lhe o peso, é para eles o mesmo, eles não têm outra experiência”). É que carregar implica uma falsa atividade, uma falsa afirmação que só se encarrega dos produtos do nihilismo. Assim, Nietzsche define Kant e Hegel como “operários da Filosofia” que acumulam e conservam uma massa enorme de juízos de valores estabelecidos, mesmo que se trate, para eles, de triunfar sobre o passado; neste sentido, eles ainda são escravos do negativo (§ 211).
– Deleuze, “Diferença e Repetição”
«É o paradoxo do legislador-sujeito, que substitui o déspota significante: quanto mais você obedece aos enunciados da realidade dominante, mais comanda como sujeito de enunciação na realidade mental, pois finalmente você só obedece a você mesmo, é a você que você obedece! E é você quem comanda, enquanto ser racional… Inventou-se uma nova forma de escravidão, ser escravo de si mesmo, ou a pura “razão”, o Cogito. Existe algo mais passional do que a razão pura? Existe uma paixão mais fria e mais extrema, mais interessada do que o Cogito?»
«É uma curiosa troca que se produz entre o Estado e a razão, mas essa troca é igualmente uma proposição analítica, visto que a razão realizada se confunde com o Estado de direito, assim como o Estado de fato é o devir da razão36. Na filosofia dita moderna e no Estado dito moderno ou racional, tudo gira em torno do legislador e do sujeito. É preciso que o Estado realize a distinção entre o legislador e o sujeito em condições formais tais que o pensamento, de seu lado, possa pensar sua identidade. Obedece sempre, pois quanto mais obedeceres, mais serás senhor, visto que só obedecerás à razão pura, isto é, a ti mesmo… Desde que a filosofia se atribuiu ao papel de fundamento, não parou de bendizer os poderes estabelecidos, e decalcar sua doutrina das faculdades dos órgãos de poder do Estado. O senso comum, a unidade de todas as faculdades como centro do Cogito, é o consenso de Estado levado ao absoluto. Essa foi notadamente a grande operação da “crítica” kantiana, retomada e desenvolvida pelo hegelianismo. Kant não parou de criticar os maus usos para melhor bendizer a função. Não deve surpreender que o filósofo tenha se tornado professor público ou funcionário de Estado. Tudo está acertado a partir do momento em que a forma-Estado inspira uma imagem do pensamento.»
– D&G, “Mille Plateaux”