«What a waste it would be, what a hateful sorry loss if you spent your life amid the pleasures of the ﬂesh just to bear a few children in sorrow to the world (…). What a sad misuse of your sacred hands (…) to be slaves to the sordid business of women’s work.»
– Abelard to Heloise, fourth letter.
Enfaixamento dos pés
«Para atrofiar os pés eram usados ataduras e sapatos especiais, que dobravam os quatro dedos pequenos e os colocavam debaixo do calcanhar. É claro que este processo quebrava literalmente os ossos dos pés. O processo era tão dolorido que as garotas agonizavam dia e noite sem poder comer ou dormir de tanta dor!
“Claro que isso era doloroso, mas se você não enfaixava os pés, não achava marido” – conta a veterana Wang Yixian de 78 anos. (…)
Um estudo realizado pelo Jornal Americano de Saúde Pública no ano de 1997 mostrou que as chinesas que viviam a tradição, eram e ainda são mais suscetíveis a quedas com alto risco de fraturar a coluna e quadris.» – fonte.
«The practice transcends all class, national and religious bounds. In areas where it is the norm, it is so not just for the women of the bush but for those from the elite petty bourgeoisie, professional government bureaucracy and intelligentsia as well. All women in northern Sudan are infibulated, yet the practice has been anathema among the southern peoples. Among every religion on the continent—Coptic Christians, Muslims, animists, the “Black Jews” of Ethiopia, both Catholic and Protestant converts in Nigeria—there are peoples that persist in female mutilations. Moreover, it is practiced in Burkina Faso among tribes with both patriarchal and matriarchal cultures. (…) Almost every reference links the custom to the family’s fear that their daughter won’t be “marriageable.” Unmutilated young girls are ostracized, labeled as “unclean” or branded as whores; children born to unexcised women are considered bastards in many societies, and unscarred genitals are associated with prostitution. Often unmutilated women are considered illegitimate; they cannot inherit money, cattle or land, nor do they fetch an adequate bride price. One Somalian woman defended her granddaughter’s wish to be infibulated, saying it “takes away nothing that she needs. If she does not have this done, she will become a harlot.” The girl’s father, a college-educated businessman, expressed his uncertainty: “Yes, I know it is bad for the health of girls. But I don’t want my daughter to blame me later on because she could not find a husband.”» – source.
«When the hole is large enough, the first clay or wooden plate, measuring around 4 cm across, is inserted. Over the period of a year, plates are replaced with progressively larger ones as the lip stretches. Women choose how far they wish to stretch their lips, some feeling more discomfort than others. Final plates can measure from 8 centimetres to more than 20, and women may have to remove some of their lower teeth to accommodate them.» – source.
«When a Mursi girl reaches puberty, her lower lip is cut to insert a small wooden peg. Once her lip has been cut and stretched over a period of time, she is defined as being sexually mature. Through this process, the girl attains a new identity. She becomes a bansanai, an indication of her transition from a girl to a woman. Tied tightly to fertility and eligibility for marriage, the lip-plate signifies womanhood.
Women are expected to wear her lip-plate in several occasions, such as when she sets her husband’s garchu (basket for carrying sorghum porridge) or kedem (gourd containing coffee, sour milk or boiled leaves). In such occasions, a woman who has not had her lip cut or fails to wear her lip-plate is said to become vulnerable in the presence of men. Hence it is criticised that she will serve her husband in haste as she feels uncomfortable and self-conscious without a lip-plate. Thus, she is deemed to lack the grace associated with womanhood-to be calm, quiet, hardworking and above all, proud. (…)
There are also occasions a woman is whipped by their husbands when she serves her husband and his guest coffee, sorghum or milk without wearing her lip-plate. Hence, women who do not wear their lip-plates are subjected to scrutiny by both other men and women.
A widow is expected to throw away her lip-plates and never wear them again, even if she is taken in by the brother of her husband. As such, the lip-plate serves as a reminder of a woman’s commitment to her husband.» – source.
«Dói todas as vezes que você faz, custa dinheiro, te toma tempo e ainda assim você não vive sem? (…) Segundo a depiladora Simone Vargas, são os homens os maiores incentivadores do estilo “lisinha”. “A maioria das mulheres que resolve aderir faz isso a pedido do namorado ou do marido”, afirma.» – fonte.
«A Chinese man recently divorced and sued his wife for giving him an ugly daughter. Not only did he win the case, his ex-wife was sentenced to pay him 750,000 Yuan ($120,000) in compensation, reported Sina News. (…)
Sina News reported that at first, Feng suspected his wife of being unfaithful. After a DNA test proved he was indeed the father of the ugly baby, his wife finally admitted that she had undergone 620,000 Yuan ($100,000) worth of plastic surgery before meeting him. (…)
A recent advertisement for a Hong Kong plastic surgery clinic has triggered a hot debate in the country. The ad shows a family photo with a beautiful couple surrounded by three children who are, well, ugly ducklings. The photo caption reads, “The only thing you have to worry about after plastic surgery is explaining it to your children,” E-Today reports. (…)
According to data from Taiwan’s Foreign Trade Association, three million Chinese undergo plastic surgery each year. The market of these “high-end medical services” has an annual growth of 10%, quite a bit higher than the global average of 6%.» – source.
Todas as práticas anteriores se aplicam de forma semelhante do lado masculino (provações, deformações, mutilações, circuncisão, depilação, cirurgia plástica), em nome do reconhecimento social necessário para adquirir uma mulher. Um jugo a duas cabeças.
“Cônjuges” = “compartilhando o mesmo jugo”.